Excerpt from:
Keating, DP & Sasse, DK (1996). Cognitive socialization in adolescence: Critical period for a critical habit of mind. In Adams, GR, Montemayor, R, & Gullotta, TP (Eds.) Psychosocial development during adolescence: Progress in developmental contextualism (pp. 232-258). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

"...it is important to note that schools do not present the sole opportunities for, nor the sole barriers to, critical thinking...

Consider two salient aspects of contemporary society that have received critical attention: mass media, and television in particular, and the social orgination of moden urban centers... The goal of advertising, of course, is to move products and rarely do they appeal to our skills in critical analysis to do so. Indeed, they are typically designed to overcome critical thinking - by overwhelming decision-making capacities with endless and usually irrelevant criteria, by using an accelerated presentation rate to defeat refleective thinking, and by using sophisticated techniques to link products with strong emotions and desires...

The world experienced by North American and most Western adolescents outside school and beyond television is also increasingly narrow. The notion of meaningful discourse in public spaces has largely yielded to a mix of shopping mall cultures and isolated residential enclaves (Powell et al., 1985; Sennett, 1991). Opportunities for adolescents to observe or engage in critical discourse are rare, and shifting cultural patterns have contributed to this." (emphasis added)

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